11.1.1. A major hazard control system should include the principal requirement for works managements to report in writing to the competent authorities within a specified time period. The requirement should include:
notifying the existence of, or proposal for, a major hazard installation;
reporting about the hazards of the major hazard installation and their control (safety report).
Immediate reporting of major accidents.

Objectives of the reporting system

11.2.1. Reporting to the competent authorities should be arranged in such a way that the information can be used:
inside the installation:
to create awareness of the hazards of the particular installation;
to inform the workers concerned;
to decide on the appropriate level of safety and the required safety provisions;
outside the installation:
to inform the competent authorities;
to support decisions on land-use planning and siting;
to assist the competent authorities in setting priorities for inspection of the major hazard installation;
to give guidance in the preparation of the off-site emergency plan;
to inform the public nearby;

The notification of major hazard installations

11.3.1. Works management should notify the competent authorities of the existence of, or proposal for, major hazard installations. In the case of a new development, notification should precede the start of work on the installation. Notification should take place within the time period specified by the competent authorities.

11.3.2. This notification should include information on:
works management;
the installation;
existing licences or permits;
the hazardous substances, their names, maximum expected quantities and physical conditions.
11.3.3. Any notification for a new installation should take into account any foreseeable increase in the range or quantity of hazardous substances, to allow for the planned growth of the installation.

The safety report

General The works management of a major hazard installation should provide or make available to the competent authorities a safety report containing all safety-relevant information about the major hazard installation. The preparation of the safety report should be carried out under the direct responsibility of works management. Attention should also be paid to the input from, and participation of, the workers familiar with the installation. For specific items, the assistance of external consultants may be appropriate. The safety report should be arranged in such a way that it gives information about the installation, its hazards and their control. It should:
identify the nature and quantities of hazardous substances used in the installation;

give an account of the arrangements for safe operation of the installation, for control of abnormal conditions that could lead to a major accident and for emergency procedures at the site;

identify the type, relative likelihood and consequences of major accidents that might occur;
demonstrate that works management has identified the major hazard potential of the installation and has provided appropriate safety measures. The safety report should contain sufficient information to be understood without previous knowledge of the particular installation. A safety report should contain the following elements:
description of the installation, the processes and the hazardous substances used;
description of the hazards, their control, and consequences to workers, the public and the environment of potential major accidents by means of systematic hazard analysis;
description of the organisation of the installation and the management of its safety;
description of the emergency provisions in order to mitigate the consequences of major accidents.

Description of the installation, processes and hazardous substances The description of the installation should give safety-relevant information on:
the installation and the surroundings;
the design parameters;
protection zones;
area classification;
the equipment and materials used. The description of the processes should give information about:
the technical purpose of the installation;
the basic principles of the process;
process conditions, including the static and dynamic process parameters and safety-relevant data;
utility supplies;
discharge, retention, recycling or disposal of liquids, gases and waste products. A list of all hazardous substances should be given, including:
raw materials and the final products;
intermediate products and by-products;
waste products;
catalysts, additives, etc. Information about the hazardous substances should include:
the process stage in which the substances are involved;
the quantity of substances used;
safety-related physical and chemical data;
toxicological data;
environmental impact data.

Description of the hazards and their control The description of the hazards of the installation should be based on a systematic analysis, including:
the identification of hazards;
the analysis of hazards;
the analysis of the consequences of major accidents. Works management should, where appropriate, consider using a rapid ranking system in its installation in order:
to have a rapid indication of the hazards of the various parts of the installation;
to set priorities for more detailed examination. The identification of hazards should lead to the selection of safety-relevant items. This identification should preferably be based on a preliminary hazard analysis. The analysis of hazards should concentrate on the safety-relevant items. This analysis should be based on a hazard and operability study or recognised equivalent. The description of the safety-relevant components should include data on:
function, type and extent of operating conditions;
design criteria;
controls and alarms;
pressure-relief systems and valves;
dump tanks, sprinkler systems and fire protection. For particularly sensitive features, such as instrumentation, an additional reliability study should be considered, which should indicate whether sufficient precautions are taken to avoid major accidents. In the safety report an analysis should be given of the consequences of an identified major accident. This information should particularly be related to:
possible releases of energy in the form of a blast wave, including its effects on the surrounding area;
possible thermal radiation in the case of fire;
possible dispersion of released substances, particularly toxic chemicals, including its effects on the surrounding area.

Description of the organisation The safety report should contain information about the organisation of the installation and the management of its safety. Descriptions should be given of:
management structure;
general safety policy within the installation;
duties and responsibilities of works management and workers;
consultation procedures with workers and their representatives;
safety and operational procedures. An organisational diagram should be included with a description of the position and line responsibilities of the various production and supporting departments, such as operations, safety, engineering, maintenance, and so on. The allocation and delegation of responsibility for plant safety within works management should be described. The role and duties of workers, works management and safety departments should be detailed. A description should be given of the procedures for safety consultation with workers. It should indicate whether a works council or a safety committee is involved in the safety consultation, and how the safety department and medical service function within this framework. Information should be given about:
the education and qualifications required of workers in particular jobs in the installation;
the training of workers. All procedures that are relevant to the safe operation of the installation should be described. These procedures should either be given in the report or a reference made to information available in the installation. The procedures described in the report should include:
installation design and modification;
start-up, operation and shut-down of the installation;
inspection, maintenance and repair;
communication and follow-up of accidents;
internal safety audits;
management of change.

Description of emergency provisions Emergency provisions should be described in the safety report, including both organisational and technical aspects. The organisational aspects should include:
instructions and procedures in case of an emergency;
communication within the installation and with third parties;
the relationship between internal and external emergency services;
practical training on, and rehearsals of, the emergency plan. The technical emergency measures, which should be described in the report, include:
alarm systems;
emergency shut-down systems;
fire-fighting equipment;
evacuation plans;
personal protective equipment, etc.

Handling and evaluation of safety reports The competent authorities should check the safety report for completeness and accuracy and consider whether additional safety provisions are required. Both works management and the competent authorities should use the information in the report to evaluate the safety precautions. The evaluation of safety reports should be carried out by the competent authorities according to national guidelines drawn up either by the Group of Experts or elsewhere. Evaluation should include a systematic study of the major hazard potential of the installation, including domino and missile effects. Evaluation should cover:
all handling operations, including internal transport;
the consequences of process instability and major changes in process variables;
the consequences of the location of one hazardous substance in relation to another;
the consequences of common mode failure, e.g. sudden total loss of power;
the consequences of the identified major accidents in relation to off-site neighbouring populations. Where appropriate, competent authorities should consider the assistance of external consultants for the evaluation of major hazard installations, particularly where the off-site consequences of a major accident would be very serious.

Updating of safety reports

11.5.1. Works management should regularly update their safety report within a time period specified by the competent authorities.

11.5.2. Safety reports should be updated immediately in the event of significant modification to the installation.

11.5.3. Updated reports should take account of new important information about the hazards of the substances used and the process.

11.5.4. Details of minor changes taking place in every installation should be kept on file inside the plant by the plant personnel. On a regular basis, at least every five years, the safety report should be updated completely.

Reporting of accidents

Immediate report The works management should report major accidents immediately to the competent authorities. The report should include, as far as it is available, information necessary for an initial evaluation, such as:
the nature of the accident;
the substances involved;
an indication of the possible acute effects on persons and the environment, and data needed to assess these effects;
the initial measures taken. The report should give information in order to let the competent authorities and, where appropriate, the local authorities decide whether urgent action is necessary off site and whether the off-site emergency plan should be put into operation. The competent authorities should provide a standard form for the immediate reporting of major accidents.

Complete report Works management should later provide further information in the form of a complete report to the competent authorities. This complete report of a major accident should contain:
an analysis of the causes and contributing factors of the accident;
the steps taken to mitigate the effects, acute as well as long term;
the provisions made to prevent a recurrence of the accident;
lessons learnt for the safety of the installation;
all available data useful for assessing possible long-term effects on workers, the public and the environment. The competent authorities should make information on the accident available to works managements and competent authorities elsewhere.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

  • 5 × 2 =