General

12.1.1. The competent authorities should establish by policy, regulation or legislation a time schedule for the implementation of the various elements of a major hazard control system.

12.1.2. The speed of implementation of a major hazard control system should depend on:
resources available locally and nationally for the different components of the control system;
the number of major hazard installations in the country.

12.1.3. Priorities should be set by the competent authorities for the staged implementation of the major hazard control system. Care should be taken not to attempt too much in the short term where local resources are limited.

12.1.4. Where sufficient national and local resources are available, the competent authorities should arrange for any new major hazard installation to come within the full major hazard control system. Existing major hazard installations should be allowed a time period by the competent authorities to meet the various requirements of the system.

Identification of major hazard installations

12.2.1. The competent authorities should draw up a definition of a major hazard installation. This definition, based on a list of hazardous substances with their threshold quantities, should be clear and unambiguous.

12.2.2. The competent authorities should confirm this definition as part of major hazard legislation to enable both existing and proposed new major hazard installations to be identified.

12.2.3. As a start of the identification, the competent authorities should consider whether existing major hazard installations can be identified by non-statutory means, using tentative criteria.

Establishment of a Group of Experts

12.3.1. For countries setting up a major hazard control system for the first time, the competent authorities should consider the establishment of a Group of Experts.

12.3.2. The Group should consist mainly of trained engineers, chemists and physicists and should have the task of advising the competent authorities, works managements, trade unions, local authorities, government inspectorates, and so on, on all aspects of a major hazard control system.

12.3.3. Where appropriate, competent authorities should consider seconding experts from industry, trade unions, universities, research and technology institutes and consultancies to assist in this task.

12.3.4. Competent authorities should ensure that the chosen experts work as a group, in order that individual experiences can be shared by the group.

On-site emergency planning

12.4.1. Competent authorities should ensure that all major hazard installations have an on-site emergency plan.

12.4.2. Works management should make the necessary arrangements to draw up an on-site emergency plan. This plan should be based on the consequences of potential major accidents.

12.4.3. Works management should ensure that it has sufficient workers and safety management available to meet the requirements of the on-site emergency plan.

12.4.4. Works management should ensure that the on-site emergency plan is tested and rehearsed to identify any weaknesses in the plan, and that such weaknesses are quickly corrected.

Off-site emergency planning

12.5.1. Competent authorities should clarify, by means of policy, regulation or legislation, whether the works managements or the local authorities have the responsibility for preparing the off-site emergency plan.

12.5.2. Where the responsibility lies with the local authorities, works managements should assist them with the necessary technical information.

12.5.3. The off-site emergency plan should be based on information about the potential consequences of major accidents off site.

12.5.4. The off-site emergency plan should be consistent with the on-site emergency plan.

12.5.5. All parties having a role in the off-site emergency plan should be advised as to their responsibilities by the party responsible for the plan.

12.5.6. The off-site emergency plan should specifically address whether those living near the installation should remain indoors or be evacuated, and what action is necessary in either case.

12.5.7. The organisation responsible for the plan should ensure that the plan is tested and rehearsed to identify any weaknesses, and that such weaknesses are quickly corrected in the modified plan.

Siting and land-use planning

12.6.1. The siting of major hazard installations and the use of land surrounding the installations should be regarded by the competent authorities as a fundamental element of the major hazard control system.

12.6.2. Competent authorities should establish criteria for the appropriate separation of installations from people living and working nearby.

12.6.3. If required, advice on such criteria should be obtained from the Group of Experts.

12.6.4. As a first priority, competent authorities should establish an appropriate siting policy for all new major hazard installations.

12.6.5. Where the separation from nearby developments is less than that indicated under the siting policy, the government inspectorate should urgently consider the need for additional safety control on site.

Training of government inspectors

12.7.1. Competent authorities should take account of the key role that its government inspectors are likely to hold in any major hazard control system.

12.7.2. Competent authorities should take relevant measures to provide appropriate training to government inspectors and to establish minimum academic and professional qualifications enabling them to carry out their duties within the major hazard control system, which may include:
identification of major hazard installations;
licensing of, or issuing permits for, the installations;
inspection of the installations;
evaluation of safety reports from works managements;
advising about off-site emergency planning.

12.7.3. Competent authorities should consider using the Group of Experts to assist in the training of government inspectors.

12.7.4. Alternative sources of training, which should also be considered by competent authorities, include:
joint participation in industry safety training courses;
fellowships under the supervision of experienced inspectors either in the country or abroad (if appropriate);
professional meetings and seminars about major hazards;
periodical literature and reports about major hazard control developments in other countries with established control systems.

Preparation of check-lists

12.8.1. Check-lists should be considered both by the competent authorities and by works managements as an effective way of transferring experience to less experienced users.

12.8.2. Where appropriate, check-lists should be considered for:
properties of hazardous substances;
detailed design requirements;
inspection systems;
internal audit systems;
management control systems;
guidance of the contents of safety reports;
reporting of major accidents;
evaluation of hazards;
preparing emergency plans both on site and off-site;
siting and layout of the installation;
accident investigation.

12.8.3. Check-lists should be kept up to date in order to be effective.

Inspection of installations by government inspectors

12.9.1. Competent authorities should make arrangements for major hazard installations to be regularly inspected by government inspectors.

12.9.2. The initial inspection programme should be drawn up based on the details provided at the time of notification. Subsequent inspections should take into account the findings from the examination of the safety report, and the results of previous inspections.

12.9.3. Government inspectors should set priorities for an inspection programme at each installation based on a sample inspection of one plant component to represent the standard of safety of all similar components.

12.9.4. Government inspectors should confirm by inspection which parts of the major hazard installation contain hazardous substances in sufficient quantity to cause a major accident.

12.9.5. Government inspectors should, through their inspections, make sufficient checks on the actions taken by works managements to satisfy themselves as to the competence of the latter to operate the plant safety and to maintain control in the event of an accident.

12.9.6. Government inspectors should keep a record of all inspections carried out, together with actions required of works managements, in order to ensure continuity where there is a change of inspectors.

12.9.7. Government inspectors should initiate action to remedy any significant defects discovered during the inspection.

Inspection of installations by specialists

12.10.1. The role of specialists, including electrical, mechanical, civil and chemical engineers, should be to provide support for general government inspectors.

12.10.2. Competent authorities should consider the need for specialists in their country according to the resources available.

12.10.3. The work of specialists should include, for example:
advising the general government inspectors on the selection of sample components to be inspected inside the major hazard installation;
inspecting pressure vessels for design, operation and maintenance to approved standards and regulations;
checking computer-controlled major hazard installations for software accuracy and reliability;
checking the procedures for modifying installations in order to maintain the initial integrity of the plant after modification;
checking the design and maintenance procedures for pipelines carrying hazardous materials.

12.10.4. Specialists should be aware of the world-wide experience of accidents involving their particular discipline and should be able to advise general government inspectors and works managements accordingly.

Actions following the evaluation of safety reports

12.11.1. Evaluation in conjunction with the safety report of the installation should provide both works managements and government inspectors with a basis for:
deciding if a new process should be allowed to proceed;
evaluating the adequacy of the layout of a new installation or process;
evaluating the adequacy of hardware and software control arrangements, e.g. automatic shut-off valves;
formulating an on-site emergency plan and providing information for an off-site emergency plan;
evaluating the separation proposed between the installation and the neighbourhood;
deciding the extent to which the public nearby should be informed about the major hazard installation.

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