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3.FIRE HAZARDS AND FIRE PREVENTION

FIRE HAZARDS
A fire hazard is situation where there is greater than normal risk of harm to property or people due to fire. It can be defined as a hazardous area where fire will start or where smokes or gasses can be generated, or where an explosion can occur endangering the lives of people.

TYPES OF HAZARDS

A)Electrical Fire Hazards

Electrical system failures and the misuse of electrical equipment are leading causes of workplace fires. Fires can result from loose ground connections, wiring with frayed insulation, or overloaded fuses, circuits, motors, or outlets.

To prevent electrical fires, employees shall:

1)Make sure that worn wires are replaced.
2)Use only appropriately rated fuses.
3)Never use extension cords as substitutes for wiring improvements.
4)Use only approved extension cords [i.e., those with the Underwriters Laboratory (UL) or 5)Factory Mutual (FM) label].
6)Check wiring in hazardous locations where the risk of fire is especially high.
7)Check electrical equipment to ensure that it is either properly grounded or double insulated.
8)Ensure adequate spacing while performing maintenance.

B)Portable Heaters

Portable electric heaters shall have tip-over protection that automatically shuts off the unit when it is tipped over. There shall be adequate clearance between the heater and combustible furnishings or other materials at all times.

C)Office Fire Hazards

Fires in offices have become more likely because of the increased use of electrical equipment, such as computers and fax machines. To prevent office fires, employees shall:

1)Avoid overloading circuits with office equipment.
2)Turn off nonessential electrical equipment at the end of each workday.
3)Keep storage areas clear of rubbish.
4)Ensure that extension cords are not placed under carpets.
5)Ensure that trash and paper set aside for recycling is not allowed to accumulate.

D) Cutting, Welding, and Open Flame Work

1. All necessary hot work permits have been obtained prior to work beginning.
2. Cutting and welding are done by authorized personnel in designated cutting and welding areas whenever possible.
3. Adequate ventilation is provided.
4. Torches, regulators, pressure-reducing valves, and manifolds are UL listed or FM approved.
5. Oxygen-fuel gas systems are equipped with listed and/or approved backflow valves and pressure-relief devices.
6. Cutters, welders, and helpers are wearing eye protection and protective clothing as appropriate.
7. Cutting or welding is prohibited in sprinklered areas while sprinkler protection is out of service.
8. Cutting or welding is prohibited in areas where explosive atmospheres of gases, vapors, or dusts could develop from residues or accumulations in confined spaces.
9. Cutting or welding is prohibited on metal walls, ceilings, or roofs built of combustible sandwich-type panel construction or having combustible covering.
10. Confined spaces such as tanks are tested to ensure that the atmosphere is not over ten percent of the lower flammable limit before cutting or welding in or on the tank.

E) Smoking

Smoking is prohibited in all Company Name buildings. Certain outdoor areas may
also be designated as no smoking areas. The areas in which smoking is prohibited outdoors are identified by NO SMOKING signs.

HAZARDS ARISING DURING CONSTRUCTION

During the construction phase, hazards may arise which are related either to the
flammability of landfill gas or to it’s potentially asphyxiating properties. In particular cases,
it is possible that toxicity effects may be significant. The following sub-sections of the
Guidance Note may be used to form the basis of Specification Clauses for incorporation in
Contract Documentation for developments within the Consultation Zone.

three main class of occupancies, on the basis of fire load. this also conforms to the relevant Indian standard specification.
a) low fire load: generally, residential premises offices, hotels, etc
b)Moderate fire load: generally retail shops and factory buildings.
c)high fire load: generally bulk storage godowns and warehouses.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM
fire prevention has been dealt with at appropriate places. fire prevention has another dimension viz. loss reduction through fire detection and fire extinguishment which together constitute fire protection. when fire is detected in its early stages, trained personnel can easily extinguish it using first aid appliances. automatic fire detection systems can thus help minimize losses. these detectors are actually activated by smoke, radiation or heat.

the different fire extinguishment systems are as follows.
1) FIRST AID APPLIANCES
these are portable extinguishers, buckets and internal hose reels designed for use on fire in the early stage.

2)EXTERNAL APPLIANCES
these are mobile mechanically driven fire engines and tailor pumps and hydrant system installed in the compound. hydrant systems involve the provision of adequate water supplies along with piping hoses, nozzles etc

3)SPRINKLER INSTALLATION
this is a device designed for automatic detection and extinguishment of a fire by the use of water in its initial stages. its operation simultaneously causes an alarm bell to sound.

4)SPECIAL EXTINGUSHMENT SYSTEMS
Automatic medium and high velocity water spray systems. these are used to protect special hazards eg. for extinguishing fire in open tanks of certain high flashing flammable liquids and for protecting storage tanks containing low flashing hazardous liquid or gases against heat from an exposure fire.

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